Chapter 3: STAGES OF
EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Importance of Public Administration
- Scientific, technology development has led to "big
governments" which implies vast increase in scope of the
activities of public administration.
- Industrial revolution has given rise to socio - economic
problems forcing governments to take up new activities.
- Emergence of a welfare or service state instead of a
- Adoption of economic planning by modern governments to
achieve goals of welfare state has increased scope of
- Population explosion has created socio - economic
- Natural calamities, increase in violence, reduction in
social harmony has led to crisis management or rescue
operations so increase in scope of public administration.
- The above functions cause "Administrative lag" which is
due to difference between aspirations and performance.
this has to be met by Public administration.
Stages of Evolution of Public Administration
Stage I: Politics Administration Dichotomy
Separation of politics and administration first proposed by
Woodrow Wilson "Father of Public Administration". He said
politics is policy making while administration is policy
execution. Hence he called for a separate study of public
Wilson's essay was epochal in delineating conduct of
government as a field of analytical study and generalization
and beginning of public administration as a subject. Public
administration was neglected in the 19th century as
population was manageable and administration was simple.
Goals of public administration are:
- Straighten paths of government i.e. advocacy for science
of public administration.
- Make its business more business like i.e. predilection
for private administration.
- Strengthen and purify the organization
- Crown its duties with dutifulness i.e. initiative for
Comparative public administration.
Stage II: Principles of Administration
Certain principles could be discovered that increased the
efficiency, economy of public administration. The argument
was administration was administration irrespective of the
work. Principles were independent of the nature of
enterprise, personnel and creation theory.
Stage III: Dichotomy i.e. separation of
politics from administration was rejected. Since
administration has policy formulation so it can't be
separated from politics.
He wanted public administration to understand the basis of
administration in different states. To learn weakness or
virtues by comparison. To learn more efficient
administration methods of European autocracies to meet
democratic challenges without force.
Europe had seen a growth in administration as governments
in European countries had been independent of popular
assent. The desire to keep government a monopoly made
monopolists interested in the least irritating means of
governing. European ideas of government were for compact,
centralized states so their ideas, aim, thoughts, principles
were needed to be changed.
Wilson wanted reforms in administration to extend to
executive functions and methods of executive organization,
However his drawback was proponent of administration
politics dichotomy. His theory was vague, ambivalent and
didn't answer what study of administration entails, proper
relationship between administration and politics and whether
adminstrative science can be natural science.