Chapter 30: PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION
Recruitment is a negative function.
Efficiency of government and quality off service system
depends on soundness of its recruitment system.
- Direct: Open exam where candidates
come from all areas.
- Indirect: Only for those already
working in the service.
Training is an action process by which
capabilities of personnel is improved. To meet organization
needs in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes needed in
performing tasks within relatively short period of time.
- Syndicate - group assignment to make in depth study.
- Case study approach
- Role play
- Management games.
- T - Group or sensitivity training: Trainees expose their
idiosyncrasies to fellow trainees who rub them out through
Promotion refers to movement of employee
from one position to another having higher grade or higher
minimum salary. It involves increased duties or
responsibilities.Principles for promotion are merit [higher
personnel], seniority [lower personnel] or both [middle
Advancement refers to increase in pay not
position, duty, responsibility. Its based on length of
service, efficiency of employee and both.
Note: Peter principle states "a person is promoted to the
next post based on his performance in the previous post and
not requirements of the intended post". Thus a person is
promoted to his level of incompetence.
- Equal pay for equal work
- Parity with outside employment
- Cost of living
- Economic position in country
- State as a model employer
- Maintenance of efficiency
- Others: minimum wage, nature of job, social
considerations, pressure unions.
Rights of Civil Servants
Right to organize: Though employee have
right to association, state can regulate it in national
interest. Also legislatures can regulate recruitment,
service conditions of people appointed to posts. Conduct
rules can restrict fundamental rights. Employee can join
only government recognised unions. Joining non recognised
unions is an offence.
Strike: No law to ban strikes but conduct
rules prohibit civil servant from joining in any strike.
Political rights: Can contest in local
government elections after government permission. Can't join
party or campaign or be involved in politics. But can vote.
Relation with Political Executive
Harmonious relationship between political and permanent
executive is needed for smooth functioning of government.
Political executive is chosen by periodic elections and
permanent executive is chosen on basis of merit and is
subordinate to him.
Areas of interaction between political and
- Political executive spends time in political
mobilization and education of masses. They can formulate
value preferences by gauging national mood.
- Permanent executive draws meaningful lessons from its
own field experience.
- Division of labor between them leads to higher
Areas of interaction between political and
- Policy making
- Arbitration of interest
- Treatment of individual and local claims
- Balance between political accountability and
It is in the third point that administrators defend their
decisions of uniformity against politicians interests in
influencing certain decisions. In 4th point there is a
conflict between needs and interests of both groups.
- In India there is no consensus between
development goals as heterogeneity is present.
- This leads to adhocism that can't lead the service. The
encroachment of political executive in technical areas
also leads to conflicts.
- Bureaucracy has retained its pre independence style of
functioning and can't be used for rapid socio economic
- Permanent executive come from middle class and political
executive from rural class so there is difference in view
Doctrine that governs relation between political executive
and civil service:
- Anonymity - Civil service is answerable to minister and
minister to parliament.
Neutrality is for serving different
regimes with same enthusiasm. Political impartiality or non
political nature of civil service. Civil servants should
tender free, frank advice to political executive without
political considerations i.e. political sterilization. The
bureaucracy must give technical advice to the political
masters by keeping aloof of politics of the day.
Civil service must be objective, dispassionate, apolitical,
non partisan and do work with efficiency, integrity and
- The political executive keeps on changing in multi party
democracy so neutrality ensures civil service can serve
the government with same vigor and honesty.
- Political executive can trust bureaucracy after regime
- Neutral bureaucracy shall be permanent, continuous,
- Public interest demands impartiality in civil service as
it ensures impartiality as a part of government structure.
Impartiality means act without bias in client nature i.e.
rich or poor or social pressure like religion, caste etc.
- Government servants won't have commitment to development
of country and personal involvement in tasks.
- All administration is political science and it should be
responsible to public interest.
- Role of civil service in processes of decision making
means they are no longer confined to political executive.
- They must display concern for outcomes of programs.
Service is accountable to policy objectives and broad
- Leadership roles assumed by servants in developing
countries means they can't remain aloof.