Recruitment is a negative function. Efficiency of government and quality off service system depends on soundness of its recruitment system.


  1. Direct: Open exam where candidates come from all areas.
  2. Indirect: Only for those already working in the service.

Training is an action process by which capabilities of personnel is improved. To meet organization needs in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes needed in performing tasks within relatively short period of time.

  1. Lecture
  2. Syndicate - group assignment to make in depth study.
  3. Case study approach
  4. Role play
  5. Management games.
  6. T - Group or sensitivity training: Trainees expose their idiosyncrasies to fellow trainees who rub them out through mutual interactions.

Promotion refers to movement of employee from one position to another having higher grade or higher minimum salary. It involves increased duties or responsibilities.Principles for promotion are merit [higher personnel], seniority [lower personnel] or both [middle level].

Advancement refers to increase in pay not position, duty, responsibility. Its based on length of service, efficiency of employee and both.

Note: Peter principle states "a person is promoted to the next post based on his performance in the previous post and not requirements of the intended post". Thus a person is promoted to his level of incompetence.

Payment Principles:

  1. Equal pay for equal work
  2. Parity with outside employment
  3. Cost of living
  4. Economic position in country
  5. State as a model employer
  6. Maintenance of efficiency
  7. Others: minimum wage, nature of job, social considerations, pressure unions.

Rights of Civil Servants

Right to organize: Though employee have right to association, state can regulate it in national interest. Also legislatures can regulate recruitment, service conditions of people appointed to posts. Conduct rules can restrict fundamental rights. Employee can join only government recognised unions. Joining non recognised unions is an offence.

Strike: No law to ban strikes but conduct rules prohibit civil servant from joining in any strike.

Political rights: Can contest in local government elections after government permission. Can't join party or campaign or be involved in politics. But can vote.

Relation with Political Executive

Harmonious relationship between political and permanent executive is needed for smooth functioning of government. Political executive is chosen by periodic elections and permanent executive is chosen on basis of merit and is subordinate to him.

Areas of interaction between political and permanent executive:

  1. Political executive spends time in political mobilization and education of masses. They can formulate value preferences by gauging national mood.
  2. Permanent executive draws meaningful lessons from its own field experience.
  3. Division of labor between them leads to higher efficiency.

Areas of interaction between political and permanent executive:

  1. Policy making
  2. Arbitration of interest
  3. Treatment of individual and local claims
  4. Balance between political accountability and administration discretion.

It is in the third point that administrators defend their decisions of uniformity against politicians interests in influencing certain decisions. In 4th point there is a conflict between needs and interests of both groups.


  1. In India there is no consensus between development goals as heterogeneity is present.
  2. This leads to adhocism that can't lead the service. The encroachment of political executive in technical areas also leads to conflicts.
  3. Bureaucracy has retained its pre independence style of functioning and can't be used for rapid socio economic transformation.
  4. Permanent executive come from middle class and political executive from rural class so there is difference in view points.

Doctrine that governs relation between political executive and civil service:
  1. Neutrality
  2. Anonymity - Civil service is answerable to minister and minister to parliament.

Neutrality is for serving different regimes with same enthusiasm. Political impartiality or non political nature of civil service. Civil servants should tender free, frank advice to political executive without political considerations i.e. political sterilization. The bureaucracy must give technical advice to the political masters by keeping aloof of politics of the day.

Civil service must be objective, dispassionate, apolitical, non partisan and do work with efficiency, integrity and loyalty.


  1. The political executive keeps on changing in multi party democracy so neutrality ensures civil service can serve the government with same vigor and honesty.
  2. Political executive can trust bureaucracy after regime change.
  3. Neutral bureaucracy shall be permanent, continuous, professional, reliable.
  4. Public interest demands impartiality in civil service as it ensures impartiality as a part of government structure. Impartiality means act without bias in client nature i.e. rich or poor or social pressure like religion, caste etc.


  1. Government servants won't have commitment to development of country and personal involvement in tasks.
  2. All administration is political science and it should be responsible to public interest.
  3. Role of civil service in processes of decision making means they are no longer confined to political executive.
  4. They must display concern for outcomes of programs. Service is accountable to policy objectives and broad societal concerns.
  5. Leadership roles assumed by servants in developing countries means they can't remain aloof.