Organization & Methods study

Systematic examination of activities in order to improve effective use of human and other material resources.

  1. Select area or process that needs attention.
  2. Record current situation prevailing it.
  3. Examine, analyze existing scenario.
  4. Develop, design alternatives.
  5. Implement chosen solution.
  6. Monitor implemented solution, ensure effectiveness.

Anti development thesis

Opposes concept of application of western development model or theory on development activities of third world countries. The economic, social, political aspects of those countries are different from West. In west, economic growth is sole base as well as ultimate aim of development and cultural and environment development is ignored.

Anti development thesis proposes that when development plans are conceived the local situations should get more importance and administration should have a paradigm shift from western ideas and experiences to local.

Needs and wants of societies are different. Universal application of western theories isn't good as development programs are intended for benefit of whole society. As needs of different societies are different therefore administrative bodies should have indigenous development programs for taking care of societies.

Contingency theory of leadership

There is no best way to organize a corporation, lead a company or to make decisions. Best way depends on internal or external factors.

Two types of behavior proved to be very effective in leadership.

  1. Consideration: Build good rapport, relationship, show support and concern for subordinates.
  2. Initiating: Provide structure to ensure task completion and goal attainment.

Suggest no best way to have "leadership" and "organization". Management styles are influenced by contingency factors viz technology, suppliers, distributors, consumer interest groups, government, unions.

Organizations are open systems that need careful management to satisfy and balance internal needs and adapt to environment circumstances. The best way of organization depends on kind of tasks or environment one is dealing with. It needs high degree of managerial talent to identify different organization  variables and network of relationship both within and outside.

This theory seeks to understand how organizations and environment are interrelated. It understands multi variate nature of organization, how organizations operate under varying conditions and specific circumstances.

Minnesbrook conferences

First conference: It was organized against the backdrop of anger, unrest against government. Participation was narrow and from political scientists. Focus was on change, social equity, relevance and value. Thus New Public administration was born.

Second conference: Focus on liberalization, globalization, privatization. Gave rise to NPM. Broad participation from various fields and also the US economy was good and euphoria was present. It accepted that public administration had huge problems. It had to accept best that business sector offers as well as non profit sector offers.