Chapter 35: MISCELLANEOUS
Organization & Methods study
Systematic examination of activities in order to improve
effective use of human and other material resources.
- Select area or process that needs attention.
- Record current situation prevailing it.
- Examine, analyze existing scenario.
- Develop, design alternatives.
- Implement chosen solution.
- Monitor implemented solution, ensure effectiveness.
Anti development thesis
Opposes concept of application of western development model
or theory on development activities of third world
countries. The economic, social, political aspects of those
countries are different from West. In west, economic growth
is sole base as well as ultimate aim of development and
cultural and environment development is ignored.
Anti development thesis proposes that when development
plans are conceived the local situations should get more
importance and administration should have a paradigm shift
from western ideas and experiences to local.
Needs and wants of societies are different. Universal
application of western theories isn't good as development
programs are intended for benefit of whole society. As needs
of different societies are different therefore
administrative bodies should have indigenous development
programs for taking care of societies.
Contingency theory of leadership
There is no best way to organize a corporation, lead a
company or to make decisions. Best way depends on internal
or external factors.
Two types of behavior proved to be very effective in
- Consideration: Build good rapport, relationship, show
support and concern for subordinates.
- Initiating: Provide structure to ensure task completion
and goal attainment.
Suggest no best way to have "leadership" and
"organization". Management styles are influenced by
contingency factors viz technology, suppliers, distributors,
consumer interest groups, government, unions.
Organizations are open systems that need careful management
to satisfy and balance internal needs and adapt to
environment circumstances. The best way of organization
depends on kind of tasks or environment one is dealing with.
It needs high degree of managerial talent to identify
different organization variables and network of
relationship both within and outside.
This theory seeks to understand how organizations and
environment are interrelated. It understands multi variate
nature of organization, how organizations operate under
varying conditions and specific circumstances.
First conference: It was organized against
the backdrop of anger, unrest against government.
Participation was narrow and from political scientists.
Focus was on change, social equity, relevance and value.
Thus New Public administration was born.
Second conference: Focus on
liberalization, globalization, privatization. Gave rise to
NPM. Broad participation from various fields and also the US
economy was good and euphoria was present. It accepted that
public administration had huge problems. It had to accept
best that business sector offers as well as non profit
PERT vs CPM