Chapter 9: NEW PUBLIC
NPA evolved in 1960's due to turmoil in US due to war and
unrest. The public administration scholars organized
Minnesbrooke conference under chairmanship of Waldo.
Anti Goals of N.P.A:
- Anti Positivism: Reject definition of
public administration as value free and make public
administration more flexible, receptive, problem solving.
- Anti Technical: Respects emotive
creative human and doesn't treat him like a cog in the
- Anti bureaucratic and anti hierarchical.
Goals of NPA:
- Relevance: Public administration
focused on efficiency and economy. These had little
significance to modern problems and so were insignificant.
NPA wanted meaningful studies towards realities of social
- Values: Reject value neutral stand of
public administration. It wants openness about values
being served through administration action.
- Social equity: Administrators should be
champions of underprivileged. They should use discretion
to protect poor.
- Change: Reject status quo and bring
innovations in administrative machinery for bringing about
- Client focus: Focus on providing goods,
services to clients and also giving them a voice in how,
when, what is to be provided.
NPA challenges public administration to be more proactive to
major social issues. NPA is important for 3rd World countries
that need De-bureaucratization and basic, quantitative
- Views mankind as malleable and perfectible.
- Stress on personal, organizational values or ethics.
- Brought public administration closer to political
- Emphasis on social equity, innovation, change.
Waldo : "Emphasis on normative theory, philosophy, social
concern and activism. Turns away from positivism and
Fredrickson: "Less generic more public. Less descriptive
more prescriptive. Change oriented. Competent to implement
good policies. Client oriented, normative. Scientific."
NPA unlike development administration is applicable
to western countries too".
Criticism: Anti Theoretic, Anti positivist, anti
management, tries to claim things that are in jurisdiction
of political institutions, processes and leadership.
New Public Administration II
Synthesis of public and private management. What, Why from
public administration and How from private administration.
Emphasis was on performance appraisal, managerial autonomy,
cost cutting, downsizing and de-bureaucratization.
Government was seen as a facilitator.
Features of NPA
- Catalytic government: Government should focus on
catalyzing public and private sector and NGO's into
solving societal problems.
- Community owned government: Government should empower
citizens to solve their own problems thus taking various
services from control of bureaucracy.
- Competitive government: Improve performance, reduce cost
by creating competition among service providers.
- Mission driven government: Government should be driven
by goals rather than rules.
- Result orientation: Focus on outcomes by encouraging
target achievement and mission directed efforts.
- Customer driven government: Less institution oriented
more client impact oriented.
- Enterprising government: Focus on generating money than
- Anticipatory government: Proactive than fire fighting
approach. Responsiveness should be inbuilt the system to
- Decentralization: Shift from hierarchical to
participatory management and team work.
- Market oriented government: Opt for market mechanisms
Motivate employees by using HR methods this will boost
their morale and they can serve citizens proactively.
Total quality management is delivering quality services to
- Re-engineering: Remove old jobs,
processes, rules and plan jobs again and train employees
to focus on eliminating inefficiency and increase
- Bench marking: Compare works and
methods against best practices to improve quality and
- Empowerment: Employees are free to
take initiatives, make decisions and monitor results.