It can be asexual or sexual. In asexual, new plants are obtained without seeds and in sexual they are obtained from seeds.

Vegetative propagation is a part of asexual reproduction where new plant is grown from vegetative parts of plant.

Plants obtained from vegetative propagation grow faster, bear fruits, flowers fast and are exact copies of the parent.

e.g.: Rose – stems, potato, ginger, turmeric – buds, bryophyllum – leaves, sweet potato, dahlia –roots.

Yeast reproduces by budding, algae by fragmentation, fungi, moss, ferns by spore formation.

External fertilization i.e. fusion of male and female gametes outside the body is common in aquatic animals.

Viviparous animals give birth to young ones, oviparous animals lay eggs.

Adolescence may begin earlier in girls. They may grow faster than boys too.

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